About this page
Plants and humans share a long and rich history. Since splitting from a common ancestor some 1.5 billion years ago we have shaped each other’s evolutionary trajectories. Today, informed by indigenous knowledge and supported by the tools & practices of modern science, we are beginning to re-learn and discover new plant compounds, their relationship to the microbial universe, and the complex biochemical interactions that give rise to their functional capacities within the human body.
The following page is ever-evolving. For now, it is intended primarily as a library summarising our laboratory results and independent peer-reviewed studies on some of the functional plant compounds used in CIRRUS formulations. We hope it will inspire your own investigation into and application of functional plant compounds to your daily life.
IMMUNE + INHIBIT
Below is a summary of the findings related to the key functional properties offered by the compounds present in CIRRUS Organic, our plant-based microbial regulator & immune booster designed for diffusers. The summary is informed by peer-reviewed research and test results performed by independent ILAC-accredited laboratories.
The active ingredients in our product have been extensively tested for bacteria, fungi, mold and viruses by Mérieux NutriSciences and Eurofins Scientific. With regards to virucidal testing:
Testing method EN 14476:
This testing method is an antiviral textile test that performs the measurement of viral antimicrobial activity for sanitisers and disinfectants.
1 Minute: Considering the cytotoxicity and neutralisation test results, the sample has shown virucidal efficacy achieving 5.81 log reduction (99.999%) in virus concentration after 1 minute exposure at room temperature. Dirty conditions. Analysis Date: 25-Jan-2021.
5 Minutes: Considering the cytotoxicity and neutralisation test results, the sample has shown virucidal efficacy achieving 6.50 log reduction (99.9999%) in virus concentration after 5 minutes exposure at room temperature. Dirty conditions. Analysis Date: 25-Jan-2021.
Safety assessment, or toxicity testing, is the process of determining the degree to which a substance may negatively impact one's normal biological functions. Using specific scientific guidelines in vivo toxicology testing was conducted by researchers following established toxicology test protocols.
The compounds have been demonstrated safe for human use, with zero toxicity observed over all categories tested:
Inhalation, *Skin, Eye Irritation, Oral ingestion.
*In fact, when included in a wound-healing gel, in vivo tests have further confirmed inherent skin healing, scar reduction and skin smoothing properties.
Summary of key findings
From our laboratory
- Advanced virucidal testing at international institutions have demonstrated exceptional ability of the compound present in CIRRUS Organic to successfully inhibit the latching and proliferation of corona-type viruses. In addition, the compound is extremely effective at inhibiting viral latching and proliferation for up to 72 hours following infection, while actively enhancing cell viability.
- The hesperidin flavonoid found in citrus extracts has very recently, in pre-print computer-generated models, shown potential as an inhibitor to the development of the SARS-CoV-2 by binding to the viral receptors.
- The 3CL protease, one of the key proteases in coronaviruses (CoV), which includes the SARS-CoV, is inhibited by a range of flavonoids. More specifically, the citrus flavonoids hesperetin, apigenin, luteolin and quercetin showed noteworthy antiviral activity through 3CL protease inhibition.
- Citrus flavonoids show an immunoregulatory role to regulate the immune response and the so-called cytokine storm associated with the overreaction of the body’s immune system which increases the severity as well as complications and high fatalities of COVID-19.
- The essential oils and their isolated constituents present in CIRRUS Organic have shown noteworthy antibacterial activity toward a range of pathogens, particularly in vitro studies assessing the effects on caries-related streptococci (mainly Streptococcus mutans) and Staphylococcus aureus, together with testing done in clinical trials.
- Citrus flavonoid compounds have proven antimicrobial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, killing 99.9% of these pathogens at dilutions of 1% after one minute contact time when tested in accordance with Section 5.2 of SANS 1615-2011.
- Polyphenols display broad antimicrobial activity towards bacteria, fungi and viruses. Antibacterial activity of citrus bioflavonoids has also been shown, with increased activity towards gram-negative bacteria.
- Laurus nobilis oil, containing β-ocimene, 1,8-cineole, α-pinene, and β- pinene as the main constituents, shows activity against SARS-CoV. The addition of linalool to Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oil (main constituent Eugenol) in a synergistic manner enhances its antimicrobial efficacy against bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the fungus Aspergillus brasiliensis.
- Studies on linalool-containing essential oils indicate that this compound possesses antimicrobic, antibacterial and antiviral effects, as well as anti-inflammatory, analgesic and local anaesthetic activities.
- Polyphenols also possess antiviral activity toward a range of viruses including RNA viruses (norovirus surrogates, rotavirus, enteroviruses, influenza A and B viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis C virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, dengue virus, West Nile virus, and Zika virus) and DNA viruses (hepatitis B virus, herpes simplex virus, and varicella-zoster virus).
- Selected terpenes have been shown to reduce viral infectivity by 100%. The mode of antiviral action of monoterpenes towards the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) entails their direct interaction with free virus particles, thereby inactivating viral infection of HSV-1 in a dose-dependent manner before the virus particles enter host cells.
- Eugenol is virucidal towards HSV-1, HSV-2 and inhibits replication. The latter’s virucidal activity was found to be higher than clinical control Acyclovir alone, and in combinations was found to synergistically inhibit herpes virus replication in vitro.
A growing list of peer-reviewed studies on some of the functional plant compounds present in CIRRUS Organic.
- 'Citrus Fruits Are Rich in Flavonoids for Immunoregulation and Potential Targeting ACE2' - 2020, Cheng et al
- Flavonoids as Antiviral Agents for Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71)
- Revealing the Potency of Citrus and Galangal Constituents to Halt SARS-CoV-2 Infection
- Review of Evidence Available on Hesperidin-Rich Products as Potential Tools against COVID-19 and Hydrodynamic Cavitation-Based Extraction as a Method of Increasing Their Production
- COVID-19 and Flavonoids: In Silico Molecular Dynamics Docking to the Active Catalytic Site of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease
- A call to arms to Pharmacognosy Researchers | Plant-based Antiviral Approaches (2020)
Luteolin, a Flavonoid with Potential for Cancer Prevention and Therapy (2008)
- Anti-Oxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergic Activities of Luteolin (2008)
- Effect of Plant Flavonoids on Immune and Inflammatory Cell Function (1998)
- Identification of potent COVID-19 main protease (Mpro) inhibitors from natural polyphenols: An in silico strategy unveils a hope against CORONA
- Chemical composition and pharmacological mechanism of Qingfei Paidu Decoction and Ma Xing Shi Gan Decoction against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): In silico and experimental study
Activity of thymol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on oral bacteria
Anthelmintic activity of essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. and eugenol against Haemonchus contortus
- The role of structure and molecular properties of terpenoids in determining their antimicrobial activity
- Antimicrobial activity of certain terpenoids
Preliminary in vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of terpenes and terpenoids towards Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Winslow et al.
Aspects of antimicrobial activity of terpenoids and the relationship to their molecular structure